Adelsherrschaften, Bauern und Pächter in der ungarischen Gesellschaft zwischen 1711 und 1848

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The paper presents a picture of the deeply segmented society and economy of the Kingdom of Hungary. Long-drawn-out consequences of 17th century wars, insufficient access to global markets and the failure of Habsburg absolutism to penetrate Hungarian society to any significant degree created a unique situation for the estates of noble lords. Here, the grain production of the estates remained largely restricted to the western regions. Elsewhere, it was at least as profitable to try to gain revenue from seignorial monopolies, e.g. from the right of the estates, but also of the holders of every piece of gentry land, to sell alcoholic beverages, especially wine, at an inn or tavern. Although this was a monopoly right, elopers, free-riders and rivals tried to have a share in the profits – which in turn led to endless conflicts among different strata of an estate society still extremely variegated and unregulated by the weak Habsburg absolutism. From 1767 to 1774 there was a systematic delineation of what lands the peasants used and what belonged to the lord, as well as a definition of dues and rights of peasants and lords. Yet, the continuing finely graded social segmentation along with the notion that possession of gentry and noble land, no matter how small, entitled to these seignorial monopoly rights, ensured the continuation of intense strife among differently privileged groups on the one hand, evading and smuggling peasants on the other.
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Umfang 22 Seiten
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Verlag DLG-Verlag
  
  
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