Berufsbezeichnungen, Landbesitz und Nahrungsmittelbedarf: Indikatoren für die Proportion agrarischer und nichtagrarischer Tätigkeiten in einer nordosthessischen Kleinregion um 1770

(aus Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie 2/2019)
Download des Beitrages als PDF

Berufsbezeichnungen, Landbesitz und Nahrungsmittelbedarf: Indikatoren für die Proportion agrarischer und nichtagrarischer Tätigkeiten in einer nordosthessischen Kleinregion um 1770
Preis:
€ 5,95
inkl. 19 % (D) MwSt.
Umfang:
22 Seiten
Autor/en:
Jochen Ebert, Tommy Schirmer und Werner Troßbach
Lieferzeit:
Sofort verfügbar

As a measurement of labour productivity in agriculture the proportion of population numbers in urban and rural areas provides only approximate estimates. To come to a closer determination, the share of agricultural activities in the cities has to be regarded just as the share of non-agricultural activities in the countryside, the latter being the main purpose of the present article. In the 18th century in most of the villages in Central Germany only a small number of households consisted of full-time farmers, while a majority of inhabitants was practising mixed economies. To determine the proportion of agricultural and non-agricultural labour in mixed economies, we were drawing upon yield checks (village-based tests conducted between 1770 and 1772 for taxation purposes) in combination with contemporary food estimates, household lists, and pay rolls recorded for 11 villages in a Central German (Northern Hesse) region. As a result, the average share of income gained on own farm plots differed in accordance with a household’s occupational orientation, amounting from 25% (day-labourers) to 50% (weavers and craftsmen), and 65% (teamsters). Only the upper layers of the latter were able to accumulate noteworthy surplus incomes to turn their consumption patterns into the direction of an „industrious revolution“. On the other side, in proportion with the share and the composition of households with non-agricultural occupations, most of the villages fell short of feeding their own inhabitants (with conspicuous shortcomings in the dairy sector in a majority of villages) on local agricultural resources, even if fallow cultivation (mainly flax, cabbage, tobacco, and – after c. 1760 – a sharply rising share of potatoes) is included.


Editorial: Agrarproduktion und Marktentscheidungen

(aus Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie 2/2019)
Download des Beitrages als PDF

Editorial: Agrarproduktion und Marktentscheidungen
Preis:
€ 5,95
inkl. 19 % (D) MwSt.
Umfang
8 Seiten
Autor/en:
Johannes Bracht, Stefan Brakensiek
Lieferzeit:
Sofort verfügbar

Innerhalb der deutschsprachigen Agrargeschichte bilden quantifizierende Ansätze eher die Ausnahme als die Regel. Das hat mit der kulturgeschichtlichen Neuorientierung der Geschichtswissenschaft zu tun, die in Abgrenzung zur Sozialgeschichte statistischen Methoden in erster Linie kritisch-dekonstruierend begegnet. Als ein unbeabsichtigter Effekt der kulturhistorischen Wende ist in den letzten 30 Jahren das Interesse an statistischen Methoden zurückgegangen. Von diesen generellen Tendenzen blieb die Historiografie ländlicher Gesellschaften nicht unberührt, ganz im Gegenteil: Sie zählte zu den führenden Teildisziplinen in diesem Perspektivwechsel. Mit Werner Troßbach (1997: 110) kann man die Anthropologisierung der Erforschung der ländlichen Gesellschaft als entscheidenden Bruch mit der Agrargeschichte in der Tradition Wilhelm Abels bezeichnen, die sich durch einen explizit wirtschaftshistorischen Zugang über Preise, Löhne, Erträge und Abgaben und zumindest zu Beginn auch durch ein Interesse an sehr langfristigen Entwicklungen auszeichnete.

Zwischen Dreifelderwirtschaft und Agrarrevolution: Zur Entwicklung der landwirtschaftlichen Methoden in Sachsen im 19. Jahrhundert

(aus Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie 2/2019)
Download des Beitrages als PDF

Zwischen Dreifelderwirtschaft und Agrarrevolution: Zur Entwicklung der landwirtschaftlichen Methoden in Sachsen im 19. Jahrhundert
Preis:
€ 5,95
inkl. 19 % (D) MwSt.
Umfang
22 Seiten
Autor/en:
Oscar Dube
Lieferzeit:
Sofort verfügbar

Data from unique agricultural surveys from the late 18th century as well as recent research on deforestation give surprising results concerning agricultural development in Saxony, one of the most densely populated and industrialized regions of Europe and Germany in the 19th century. For the first time for Germany, the pattern of land use can be reliably reconstructed for as early as 1800. Change was slow but steady afterwards. Instead of full enclosures, fencing of small plots (“Hegung”) within the fallow allowed for modifications of crop rotations within traditional methods and institutions. However, characteristics of the classic three field rotation were kept until the end of the 19th century and key characteristics of the English agricultural revolution could not be found: cultivation of legumes stayed quite low, cultivation of grain stayed above 60 percent even until after 1900, and four crop rotations were never dominant. Still, food supply was stable during the 19th century. If a continental and land-locked region could sustain dramatic population growth while largely keeping the traditional system, then the English standard model of an agricultural revolution cannot be a template for continental development. Specifically, crop rotations must have contributed far less to agricultural growth than previously thought.

Langfristiges Agrarwachstum in Deutschland, ca. 1500–1880: ein Überblick

(aus Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie 2/2019)
Download des Beitrages als PDF

Langfristiges Agrarwachstum in Deutschland, ca. 1500–1880: ein Überblick
Preis:
€ 5,95
inkl. 19 % (D) MwSt.
Umfang
20 Seiten
Autor/en:
Ulrich Pfister
Lieferzeit:
Sofort verfügbar

The study reviews evidence produced with different methods to track output and productivity in agriculture during the pre-statistical era and derives a characterization of the long-term evolution of the agricultural sector in Germany during the threeand-a-half centuries prior to the transition to modern economic growth. The three methods are: (1) An indirect estimation of agricultural output using a consumption function; (2) returns from tithes and sharecropping as proxies for grain production; and (3) an estimate of total factor productivity (TFP) using product prices and rents of input factors. Yield ratios and a TFP estimate for four estates in Westphalia suggest stagnant productivity during the seventeenth and eighteenth century in most parts of Germany. Feeding an expanding population thus required more intensive cultivation of land at a declining marginal product of labour, testified by a rising rent-wage ratio and an expansion of the arable. Regions situated in the neighbourhood of proto-industrial were exceptions to this general picture: at least from c. 1740 output grew in line with population there, and output per agricultural worker rose. Nevertheless, the effects of demand from proto-industrial workers on agricultural growth was weaker compared to effect of expanding urban populations in north-western Europe. Only the emergence of modern industry from the 1830s set a strong stimulus to agricultural modernization.

Der adelige Gutsbesitzer als Getreidehändler. Rheinland und Westfalen, 18.-19. Jahrhundert

(aus Zeitschrift für Agrargeschichte und Agrarsoziologie 2/2019)
Download des Beitrages als PDF

Der adelige Gutsbesitzer als Getreidehändler. Rheinland und Westfalen, 18.-19. Jahrhundert
Preis:
€ 5,95
inkl. 19 % (D) MwSt.
Umfang
18 Seiten
Autor/en:
Friederike Scholten
Lieferzeit:
Sofort verfügbar

The essay analyses the economic function and the social embedding of grain sales on noble manors in the 18th and 19th century in Rhineland and Westphalia. It turns out that the sale of grain surpluses, which take place regularly during the year at the castle courtyard, generated income that co-financed the owners a decent life. By selling to local people who had no direct access to agriculture and were thus highly dependent on local markets, the sale had a stabilizing effect on the rural social fabric. This goes along with the idea of the paternalistic landowner who had care for his entire community. In addition, within the frame of “interlocking markets”, the contemporaries simultaneously met on labor and product markets. Thus, it was also in the operational interest of the landowner to ensure their livelihood. This is also the reason for the efforts observed to give the sale a solid institutional framework, which regulated its preparation and course of action and gave the actors involved a permanent role. The study reveals the complexity of the grain management on noble estates. Here, landowners, even also in the manorial west, were more than recipients of pensions and dues. In their role as paternalistic landlords they led their operations according to moral principles, also for their own protection. Nevertheless, profit thinking was not entirely foreign to them. This can be seen in the professionalization and rationalization measures, which, however, were clearly limited.